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Ebru is an ornamental art made by passing the patterns created with specially prepared paints on the water concentrated with tragacanth. Brushes and paints are special. Although it is not known when and in which country the art of marbling emerged, it is thought that this art is a decorative art specific to eastern countries. It is written in some Iranian sources that it originated in India. According to some sources, it was born in the city of Bukhara in Turkestan and passed to the Ottomans through Iran. In the West, marbling is called “Turkish Paper” or “marble paper”. Marbling is a method of sprinkling paints that are made to not sink to the bottom of the water by adding gall to the water, which is thickened with tragacanth or seaweed plant (keragin), which is obtained from the sap of the geven grass, and the shapes formed on the water surface as well as by intervening with a metal-tipped tool called “we”. It is done by passing it on a piece of paper. Marbling, which was an art and business in its own right during the Ottoman period, came to the point of being forgotten by the beginning of the 20th century. The revival of this art was thanks to the great artist Necmeddin Okyay, who developed the ‘flowered marbling’ in the art of marbling. It was defined as intangible cultural heritage by UNESCO on 27 November 2014.
Kebab is the name given to meat dishes that are cooked on the barbecue in oak charcoal or wood oven, and also cooked in ovens today. It is cooked directly over the fire or in a bowl without water. Restaurants that make such dishes are called kebab shops. Mostly mutton or veal is used as meat. The history of Hominini cooking with fire in the Middle East dates back 790,000 years, while prehistoric hearths, earthen ovens, and burnt animal bones in the Middle East and Europe date back 250,000 years. The iron bases (for the oven) found in the city of Akrotiri of the Cretan civilization date back to at least the 17th century BC. Homeros mentions pieces of roasted meat that have been bottled in his Iliad. In the Mahabharata written in ancient India, large pieces of roasted meat in a bottle are mentioned. Although the word kebab is used in English to describe any small piece of meat cooked on skewers, the word kebab is today most commonly associated with various meat dishes that originated in the Middle Ages in regions including Iran and Türkiye. Even though kebab has a very old history in places like the Middle East, it has been popularized by the Turks. Turkish style kebab can be made on skewers, as well as in casseroles, meatballs and other forms. Kebab cuisine has spread to the world in parallel with the influence of Islam. Today, kebabs made in South Asia have been blended with the local cuisine of the region.
Hatay is one of the most important ancient settlements in Turkey. In the archaeological researches, findings dated between 100,000 and 40,000 BC have been reached. At the end of the 17th century, the Hittites and BC. It came under the rule of Egypt in 1490. Antakya was established in 300 BC and the city developed rapidly. With the agreement signed between the Turkish and French delegations on July 3, 1938, an equal number of Turkish and French military forces of 5000 were deployed in Hatay. In this way, the status of Hatay was preserved. The Turkish Army entered Hatay on July 4, 1938 and started its duty. The Hatay Assembly, which was formed with the elections, convened on September 2, 1938 and declared the independent Republic of Hatay. Tayfur Sökmen was elected as the President. In line with all the negotiations, Hatay National Assembly joined Turkey as a province on 29 June 1939, in line with the unanimous decision.
Zeybek is a folk dance seen in the Western Anatolia region. Zeybek is divided into types: It is played by one person or by arranging several players in a circle. Zeybek represents a brave man who protects the people. The dancer playing Zeybek spreads her arms at shoulder level, with her hands in line with her head, and bends her arms slightly at the elbows in some dances. He moves slowly, taking big steps. One of the distinctive movements of this dance is to bend down and touch one knee to the ground from time to time. These types of zeybeks are seen in İzmir, Aydın, Manisa, Denizli, Muğla and Uşak regions. Balikesir’s Aegean coasts can also be included in this. Inner Aegean provinces; Kütahya, Bursa, Afyonkarahisar, eastern parts of Balıkesir, Eskişehir and Bilecik are under the influence of spooned zeybek style. Again, the games played in Ankara fall into the category of zeybek with spoons. The spoonful zeybek game character also includes the Western Black Sea Region, which extends to Sinop. The southern parts of Burdur, Isparta, Antalya, Muğla-Fethiye and Denizli (around Acıpayam) fall into “Teke” zeybeks and have lithe melodies. In the inner and southern parts of Balıkesir, broken zeybek (safe) games are encountered. The emergence of the Zeybek has to do with vintage festivities. In Ancient Anatolia, events such as drinking wine and crushing grapes were celebrated and glorified with various feasts, festivals and dances. The reason why the feet perform more in the Zeybek dance is attributed to the imitation of the grape crushing ritual. It is also known that some of the laced and embroidered accessories that zeybeks tie on their heads symbolize some related items such as grapes and vine leaves.
Hatay Künefe is one of the limited number of desserts containing cheese produced in Turkey. Wire kadayif, fresh künefelik cheese, butter and sherbet are used in its production. It is obtained by cooking künefelik cheese between two layers of kadayif in a flat tray and adding sherbet of desired sweetness. The size of the tray depends on the number of servings to be consumed. The product is approximately 1–2 cm thick. Hatay Kunefe is consumed hot. During its consumption, the cheese inside is expected to be stretched by fiber. Hatay Kunefe differs from other cheese-containing desserts produced in Türkiye in terms of shape, colour, structure, composition, preparation and consumption. Its shape is circular. Unlike other cheese desserts, the lower and upper surfaces of Hatay Kunefe are cooked separately. Sweetening is done by adding sherbet after the künefe is cooked.
How is it prepared?
First, the künefe syrup is prepared. For sherbet, water and sugar are put in a saucepan and brought to a boil. (It is mixed from time to time so that the syrup does not stick to the bottom.) When the syrup starts to boil, 1 teaspoon of lemon juice is added to prevent the sugar from being cut, and it is boiled for 10-15 minutes and the syrup is left to cool. For the künefe, the butter is left to melt over low heat. The melted butter is kept aside. After the butter is frozen, the butter will have water under it. Do not use this water. Add 1 teaspoon of molasses to the slightly frozen butter and mix until it reaches the consistency of pudding. If there is no künefe tray, the bottom of the aluminum or Teflon pan is lubricated with this molasses oil mixture. Kadayif is separated by linting. Then it is cut into 1 cm thick with a knife and divided into two parts. A piece of kadayif that we have separated is placed at the bottom of the greased tray without leaving any spaces between them. The grated cheese is spread on the kadayif. The other kadayif is covered in such a way that there is no space on the cheese. The edges are smoothed and pressed on with another tray or with your hand. Be careful not to leave any gaps by pressing firmly. It is cooked by turning the tray on the stove on the lowest heat. When you are sure that the gold is completely browned, the tray is turned upside down on a plate or tray and the inside of the second tray is also oiled so that the other side is cooked.The künefe is placed on the tray with the fried part on top and the bottom is fried. Thus, both sides are fried. Sherbet is poured starting from the edge. Served with pistachios or milk cream. Enjoy your meal.